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    PDB 12ca-1add »
    PDB 1adf-1axg »
    PDB 1aye-1biw »
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    PDB 1ww1-1x6m »
    PDB 1x81-1xm4 »
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    PDB 1xuj-1y7w »
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    PDB 1zs0-2a21 »
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    PDB 2ctc-2dan »
    PDB 2dar-2dqm »
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    PDB 2ee8-2els »
    PDB 2elt-2en4 »
    PDB 2en6-2ep2 »
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    PDB 2g2n-2gc3 »
    PDB 2gd8-2gze »
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    PDB 2iux-2ja7 »
    PDB 2ja8-2jt6 »
    PDB 2jtg-2kdx »
    PDB 2ke1-2kyu »
    PDB 2kzm-2lgg »
    PDB 2lgk-2m0e »
    PDB 2m0f-2mlr »
    PDB 2mls-2n95 »
    PDB 2n9o-2nwo »
    PDB 2nwp-2o6i »
    PDB 2o6m-2om1 »
    PDB 2omg-2ovx »
    PDB 2ovy-2p9x »
    PDB 2paj-2poj »
    PDB 2pop-2q1q »
    PDB 2q1z-2ql1 »
    PDB 2qla-2qym »
    PDB 2qyn-2rgl »
    PDB 2rgm-2rv2 »
    PDB 2rv3-2v1c »
    PDB 2v1x-2vh3 »
    PDB 2vh5-2vqw »
    PDB 2vqx-2w13 »
    PDB 2w14-2wey »
    PDB 2wfq-2wwn »
    PDB 2wwo-2x8y »
    PDB 2x8z-2xjl »
    PDB 2xjy-2xxg »
    PDB 2xxh-2y7d »
    PDB 2y7e-2yql »
    PDB 2yqm-2yts »
    PDB 2ytt-2z3j »
    PDB 2z45-2zem »
    PDB 2zen-2zws »
    PDB 2zxc-3ad8 »
    PDB 3ad9-3ave »
    PDB 3avr-3b6n »
    PDB 3b6p-3bll »
    PDB 3blo-3c37 »
    PDB 3c3u-3cia »
    PDB 3ciz-3cyu »
    PDB 3czn-3d7g »
    PDB 3d7h-3dgd »
    PDB 3dgl-3dsu »
    PDB 3dsv-3e2c »
    PDB 3e2d-3eb5 »
    PDB 3eb6-3ejt »
    PDB 3eju-3eyd »
    PDB 3eyl-3f7i »
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    PDB 3fki-3fui »
    PDB 3fuj-3g7l »
    PDB 3g8q-3gj9 »
    PDB 3gjn-3gtp »
    PDB 3gtq-3h66 »
    PDB 3h67-3hi2 »
    PDB 3hjt-3hqh »
    PDB 3hqw-3i4c »
    PDB 3i4m-3iet »
    PDB 3iew-3iq6 »
    PDB 3iqs-3jca »
    PDB 3jck-3jxp »
    PDB 3jyg-3ked »
    PDB 3kee-3kr4 »
    PDB 3kr5-3l22 »
    PDB 3l2q-3liz »
    PDB 3ljg-3lsw »
    PDB 3lsx-3m1d »
    PDB 3m1j-3m6i »
    PDB 3m6o-3mhm »
    PDB 3mho-3mpg »
    PDB 3mpu-3n2u »
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    PDB 3nih-3nmk »
    PDB 3nn7-3o56 »
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    PDB 3pt9-3q7a »
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    PDB 3riy-3rvh »
    PDB 3rx5-3s2j »
    PDB 3s2l-3sbh »
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    PDB 3sja-3su5 »
    PDB 3su6-3t5u »
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    PDB 3wyk-3zq6 »
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    PDB 4a3d-4aa1 »
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    PDB 4ar8-4b3e »
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    PDB 4bzs-4c6k »
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    PDB 4ci0-4cs8 »
    PDB 4cs9-4cx6 »
    PDB 4cxo-4d6s »
    PDB 4d7o-4dqy »
    PDB 4dr1-4dyo »
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    PDB 4eyd-4f5x »
    PDB 4f6h-4fjp »
    PDB 4fk5-4fvl »
    PDB 4fvn-4g2j »
    PDB 4g2l-4ger »
    PDB 4gfj-4gsc »
    PDB 4gsf-4gxs »
    PDB 4gxw-4h7z »
    PDB 4h82-4hjw »
    PDB 4hk5-4hvx »
    PDB 4hwo-4i6v »
    PDB 4i7b-4ign »
    PDB 4ih3-4iuu »
    PDB 4iuv-4jdg »
    PDB 4je6-4jqp »
    PDB 4js6-4k2y »
    PDB 4k3n-4k96 »
    PDB 4k97-4kh1 »
    PDB 4kis-4kxa »
    PDB 4kxb-4l5o »
    PDB 4l5u-4le6 »
    PDB 4lef-4llb »
    PDB 4llf-4m2r »
    PDB 4m2u-4mgr »
    PDB 4mhn-4mt2 »
    PDB 4mt9-4n16 »
    PDB 4n27-4ngm »
    PDB 4ngn-4ntk »
    PDB 4ntl-4o6h »
    PDB 4o6i-4oja »
    PDB 4ojl-4ovz »
    PDB 4ow0-4p6s »
    PDB 4p8e-4pnr »
    PDB 4pns-4q08 »
    PDB 4q09-4q8q »
    PDB 4q8r-4qhg »
    PDB 4qhh-4qpb »
    PDB 4qpe-4r59 »
    PDB 4r5a-4rkg »
    PDB 4rkh-4rvb »
    PDB 4rvd-4toi »
    PDB 4tor-4u3d »
    PDB 4u3e-4uez »
    PDB 4uf0-4upo »
    PDB 4upp-4uxp »
    PDB 4uxr-4w4o »
    PDB 4w4u-4wki »
    PDB 4wl4-4x2t »
    PDB 4x2u-4xdg »
    PDB 4xdh-4xn9 »
    PDB 4xna-4y6q »
    PDB 4y7l-4yhh »
    PDB 4yiw-4yye »
    PDB 4yyt-4zfr »
    PDB 4zft-4zup »
    PDB 4zuq-5a0r »
    PDB 5a0s-5a8a »
    PDB 5aaq-5adq »
    PDB 5adr-5amb »
    PDB 5amc-5b1u »
    PDB 5b25-5bqk »
    PDB 5bqm-5c2e »
    PDB 5c2h-5cc0 »
    PDB 5cc1-5cqd »
    PDB 5cqh-5d56 »
    PDB 5d5n-5doh »
    PDB 5dor-5e6a »
    PDB 5e6b-5egy »
    PDB 5eh2-5ety »
    PDB 5eu8-5f6l »
    PDB 5f6q-5fdi »
    PDB 5fer-5fny »
    PDB 5fp3-5fv3 »
    PDB 5fvo-5fyy »
    PDB 5fyz-5g11 »
    PDB 5g12-5gja »
    PDB 5gk3-5h2r »
    PDB 5h3j-5hmx »
    PDB 5hmy-5i1r »
    PDB 5i1t-5ij5 »
    PDB 5ij7-5iy9 »
    PDB 5iya-5je7 »
    PDB 5jea-5jlb »
    PDB 5jle-5jw7 »
    PDB 5jwl-5k8c »
    PDB 5k8p-5kgm »
    PDB 5kgn-5kyu »
    PDB 5kyw-5laq »
    PDB 5laz-5lku »
    PDB 5lkx-5lrk »
    PDB 5lrm-5lyf »
    PDB 5lyi-5m8o »
    PDB 5m8p-5mmb »
    PDB 5mmd-5n0h »
    PDB 5n0i-5na8 »
    PDB 5nai-5nlj »
    PDB 5nm9-5ny3 »
    PDB 5ny6-5oa3 »
    PDB 5oam-5oj7 »
    PDB 5ojh-5ph3 »
    PDB 5ph4-5pi7 »
    PDB 5pi8-5pjb »
    PDB 5pjc-5pkf »
    PDB 5pkg-5plj »
    PDB 5plk-5pmn »
    PDB 5pmo-5pnr »
    PDB 5pns-5pxb »
    PDB 5pxc-5pyf »
    PDB 5pyg-5pzj »
    PDB 5qpd-5r4u »
    PDB 5r64-5rm7 »
    PDB 5rm8-5szc »
    PDB 5t00-5tcd »
    PDB 5td3-5tmf »
    PDB 5tmh-5ty2 »
    PDB 5ty7-5u9m »
    PDB 5u9t-5ugk »
    PDB 5uh5-5uo5 »
    PDB 5uo6-5uwl »
    PDB 5uwm-5va4 »
    PDB 5va7-5vjd »
    PDB 5vjf-5vo3 »
    PDB 5vo8-5vv7 »
    PDB 5vv8-5w5k »
    PDB 5w5p-5wcr »
    PDB 5wcw-5wll »
    PDB 5wlm-5wy5 »
    PDB 5wy8-5xfr »
    PDB 5xgw-5xwi »
    PDB 5xwk-5y5n »
    PDB 5y6d-5yjp »
    PDB 5ykd-5yq1 »
    PDB 5yq2-5z86 »
    PDB 5z8l-5zhf »
    PDB 5zhv-5zrs »
    PDB 5zrt-6a7w »
    PDB 6a83-6alh »
    PDB 6aml-6b2f »
    PDB 6b3w-6bml »
    PDB 6bmm-6bwy »
    PDB 6byu-6cao »
    PDB 6cap-6cj5 »
    PDB 6cje-6cpu »
    PDB 6cqg-6d1a »
    PDB 6d1b-6dbw »
    PDB 6dbx-6dps »
    PDB 6dq3-6e86 »
    PDB 6e8p-6ej0 »
    PDB 6ej1-6eu0 »
    PDB 6eu1-6f40 »
    PDB 6f41-6fds »
    PDB 6fdw-6fjk »
    PDB 6fju-6ful »
    PDB 6fuw-6g46 »
    PDB 6g4t-6gdc »
    PDB 6gdd-6got »
    PDB 6gov-6h0z »
    PDB 6h10-6h5m »
    PDB 6h5t-6hfd »
    PDB 6hfe-6hsf »
    PDB 6hsg-6i1d »
    PDB 6i1u-6ijl »
    PDB 6ijm-6iv1 »
    PDB 6iv2-6j4n »
    PDB 6j4t-6jev »
    PDB 6jew-6jst »
    PDB 6jsu-6kc5 »
    PDB 6kc6-6knb »
    PDB 6knc-6kua »
    PDB 6kv1-6l72 »
    PDB 6l74-6lj5 »
    PDB 6lj6-6lux »
    PDB 6luy-6mbd »
    PDB 6mbo-6mlc »
    PDB 6mm1-6n7l »
    PDB 6n7p-6ngj »
    PDB 6ngk-6nl6 »
    PDB 6nl7-6o47 »
    PDB 6o5g-6ofu »
    PDB 6ogn-6oud »
    PDB 6oue-6p40 »
    PDB 6p59-6phz »
    PDB 6pi1-6pnf »
    PDB 6png-6pv0 »
    PDB 6pv1-6qcd »
    PDB 6qce-6qv5 »
    PDB 6qwo-6r4y »
    PDB 6r4z-6rd4 »
    PDB 6rd5-6rfl »
    PDB 6rfn-6rob »
    PDB 6roe-6rw1 »
    PDB 6rwe-6s3g »
    PDB 6s3j-6scp »
    PDB 6scu-6siw »
    PDB 6six-6sqo »
    PDB 6sqp-6t5p »
    PDB 6t5q-6tld »
    PDB 6tli-6twf »
    PDB 6twm-6uah »
    PDB 6uas-6uo2 »
    PDB 6uo3-6v61 »
    PDB 6v65-6vnq »
    PDB 6vnr-6wbq »
    PDB 6wbw-6wox »
    PDB 6woy-6x38 »
    PDB 6x43-6xg3 »
    PDB 6xgu-6xt6 »
    PDB 6xtx-6y75 »
    PDB 6y77-6yh7 »
    PDB 6yh8-6ymr »
    PDB 6yms-6yzj »
    PDB 6yzk-6z81 »
    PDB 6z85-6zkd »
    PDB 6zke-6zpf »
    PDB 6zpq-6zxg »
    PDB 6zxh-7a8q »
    PDB 7a8r-7aeq »
    PDB 7aes-7aoz »
    PDB 7ap2-7b38 »
    PDB 7b3b-7bot »
    PDB 7bp1-7c2i »
    PDB 7c2j-7cgu »
    PDB 7chv-7cr5 »
    PDB 7cro-7d4f »
    PDB 7d4p-7ddo »
    PDB 7ddp-7duf »
    PDB 7dvd-7eju »
    PDB 7ekc-7ico »
    PDB 7icp-7joc »
    PDB 7jom-7k66 »
    PDB 7k6i-7khy »
    PDB 7khz-7kyj »
    PDB 7kz7-7lrd »
    PDB 7lre-7mke »
    PDB 7mki-7nn0 »
    PDB 7nng-7oc4 »
    PDB 7oc5-7oru »
    PDB 7orv-7pe8 »
    PDB 7pe9-7znf »
    PDB 830c-9nse »

Element Zinc, Zn, Transition Metal

About Zinc

From the metals of the iron group, to which it is in many respects similar, zinc differs in the fact that it cannot form any other stage of combination than that containing divalent ion. In this respect it forms an intermediate member between nickel, which has lost this property for the most part, and magnesium, in the case of which no trace of that property is present.

Zinc occurs fairly abundantly in nature, both as oxygen compounds (carbonate and silicate), and as sulphide or blende. Zinc is obtained from both these and is a white, fairly soft metal which melts as low as 420° and boils at 950°. In the air and in water it oxidises very quickly. Since, however, the zinc hydroxide or carbonate which is formed covers the underlying metal with a coherent coating, the oxidation proceeds for the most part slowly, and objects made of zinc resist the influence of air and water fairly well.

Cast zinc is coarsely crystalline and brittle. If, however, the metal is heated to somewhat over 100°, it becomes soft and tenacious, and can be hammered and rolled. Having once undergone this treatment, it remains tenacious even at the ordinary temperature. If it is heated to about 300°, it again becomes extremely brittle, and at that temperature can be ground to a powder; on being cooled, it retains a somewhat brittle character.

Zinc is employed not only in the pure state, but also to a large extent in alloys. Its most important alloy is that with copper; it is called brass, and will be treated under copper. With copper and nickel it forms German silver.

Zinc is also used for coating iron in order to protect it from rust; this is then known as " galvanised " iron. Iron objects which remain constantly exposed to the air, such as railings, agricultural implements, etc., are in this way rendered durable. It is true that zinc in contact with iron oxidises more quickly than when alone, but the oxidation is limited to the surface.

At 420° zinc fuses, and this temperature is low enough to allow of the metal being largely used for castings. At 950° zinc is converted into a vapour, which burns in the air with a brilliant blue flame, forming zinc oxide. The density of this vapour yields the molar weight 65.4; as this number also represents the combining weight, the formula of zinc in the vaporous state is Zn. It contains, therefore, only one combining weight, whereas most of the elements in the gaseous or vaporous form have the double formula. The other metals, however, so far as they are known in the vaporous state, exhibit the same peculiarity as zinc.

It is on the volatility of zinc that its manufacture depends. The oxygen ores are heated directly with charcoal; the sulphide, after being converted into zinc oxide by roasting in the air. The metal formed by the reduction of the oxide with charcoal volatilises and is collected in suitable receivers with exclusion of air, while the impurities remain behind in the retort.

In this process a portion of the metal is obtained in a form in which it is often used in the laboratory, viz. as zinc dust. So long as the temperature of the receiver remains below the melting-point of zinc, the metal is deposited in the form of a fine grey powder. (The relations are exactly the same as in the formation of flowers of sulphur.) This powdery form of zinc is more suitable for many chemical purposes than the fused; in using it, however, it must be remembered that it generally contains a considerable amount of zinc oxide in consequence of an incipient oxidation.

Recently many attempts have been made to obtain zinc from its ores by first converting it into a salt and then decomposing this by means of the electric current. The difficulty of obtaining a coherent metal free from oxide in this way does not appear as yet to have been overcome.

Zinc History

Humanity was familiar with the manufacture of brass from ancient ages. However the metal zinc was not was known. Instead of it Phrygian ash, used for healing sore eyes, was mentioned in the Ebers papyrus from about 1552 BC, the oldest preserved medical document. Brass is known probably since 2 century BC. In Europe it is produced since year 1400 AD. Smelting and extraction of metal zinc was accomplished perhaps since XII century AD in India. Several hypotheses exist about the origin of the name "zinc". Some of scientists suppose that it may also be derived from Persian sing for stone. A Lexicon of Alchemy by Martin Ruland (Martinus Rulandus the Elder) defines zinc as metallic marcasite, a mixture of four elements. By another, less credible version the name derives from ancient or medieval German Zinco or Zinke = sharp point. Some suppose a relation with Zinn, the German word for Tin.

Zinc belongs to the Transition metals family.

Zinc Occurrence

Average crustal abundance of zinc is 8.3x10-3 mass %. In basic igneous rocks its abundance slightly bigger than in the acidic ones: 1.3x10-2% vs. 6x10-3%. This chalcophilic element is, nevertheless, found in 66 rocks, the most important of them are zincite, sphalerite, willemite, calamine, smithsonite and franklinite ZnFe2O4. Zinc is a very active aquatic migrant, especially in thermal waters with accompanied by Lead from which commercially important zinc sulphides are settled out. Zinc actively migrates also in surface and underground waters, settled out by H2S or, in a less degree, by clay sorption.

Zinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life. A grown-up human body contains 2 g of zinc. Despite zinc-containing enzymes are omnipresent, its actual concentration is so small, that its importance was fully understood only 100 years ago. Its significant role is based on the fact that zinc may be found in more than 40 essential enzymes. It catalyzes hydrolysis peptides, proteins, some esters and aldehydes. The most important of them are carboxypeptidase A and carbonic anhydrase.

Zinc contributes to carbohydrate metabolism via insulin and activates vitamin A in the organism. It plays noticeable role for bone formation as well as for its antivirus and antitoxic activity.

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