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    PDB 2mls-2n95 »
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    PDB 2omg-2ovx »
    PDB 2ovy-2p9x »
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    PDB 2pop-2q1q »
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    PDB 2qla-2qym »
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    PDB 2rgm-2rv2 »
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    PDB 2vqx-2w13 »
    PDB 2w14-2wey »
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    PDB 3blo-3c37 »
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    PDB 3fuj-3g7l »
    PDB 3g8q-3gj9 »
    PDB 3gjn-3gtp »
    PDB 3gtq-3h66 »
    PDB 3h67-3hi2 »
    PDB 3hjt-3hqh »
    PDB 3hqw-3i4c »
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    PDB 3iew-3iq6 »
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    PDB 3jyg-3ked »
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    PDB 4d6s-4dpr »
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    PDB 4eyb-4f5c »
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    PDB 4fjp-4fvk »
    PDB 4fvl-4g26 »
    PDB 4g2j-4gem »
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    PDB 4gxs-4h76 »
    PDB 4h7z-4hje »
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    PDB 4hvx-4i68 »
    PDB 4i6v-4igm »
    PDB 4ign-4iut »
    PDB 4iuu-4jd1 »
    PDB 4jdg-4jqg »
    PDB 4jqp-4k2h »
    PDB 4k2y-4k95 »
    PDB 4k96-4kh0 »
    PDB 4kh1-4kx9 »
    PDB 4kxa-4l5l »
    PDB 4l5o-4ld4 »
    PDB 4le6-4lka »
    PDB 4llb-4m1c »
    PDB 4m2r-4mg3 »
    PDB 4mgr-4msx »
    PDB 4mt2-4n0x »
    PDB 4n16-4nge »
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    PDB 4pnr-4q07 »
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    PDB 4q8q-4qgs »
    PDB 4qhg-4qp5 »
    PDB 4qpb-4r4x »
    PDB 4r59-4riv »
    PDB 4rkg-4rv9 »
    PDB 4rvb-4to8 »
    PDB 4toi-4u3b »
    PDB 4u3d-4uer »
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    PDB 4uxp-4w2r »
    PDB 4w4o-4wke »
    PDB 4wki-4x2a »
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    PDB 4zup-5a0p »
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    PDB 5d56-5dog »
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    PDB 5e6a-5egr »
    PDB 5egy-5etx »
    PDB 5ety-5f6k »
    PDB 5f6l-5fdc »
    PDB 5fdi-5fnp »
    PDB 5fny-5fuy »
    PDB 5fv3-5fyw »
    PDB 5fyy-5g10 »
    PDB 5g11-5gj9 »
    PDB 5gja-5h2q »
    PDB 5h2r-5hmw »
    PDB 5hmx-5i12 »
    PDB 5i1r-5ij4 »
    PDB 5ij5-5iy8 »
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    PDB 5je7-5jjy »
    PDB 5jlb-5jw2 »
    PDB 5jw7-5k83 »
    PDB 5k8c-5kgl »
    PDB 5kgm-5kyn »
    PDB 5kyu-5lap »
    PDB 5laq-5lkt »
    PDB 5lku-5lrj »
    PDB 5lrk-5lyd »
    PDB 5lyf-5m8n »
    PDB 5m8o-5mma »
    PDB 5mmb-5n0e »
    PDB 5n0h-5na7 »
    PDB 5na8-5nli »
    PDB 5nlj-5ny1 »
    PDB 5ny3-5oa1 »
    PDB 5oa3-5oiu »
    PDB 5oj7-5ph2 »
    PDB 5ph3-5pi6 »
    PDB 5pi7-5pja »
    PDB 5pjb-5pke »
    PDB 5pkf-5pli »
    PDB 5plj-5pmm »
    PDB 5pmn-5pnq »
    PDB 5pnr-5pxa »
    PDB 5pxb-5pye »
    PDB 5pyf-5pzi »
    PDB 5pzj-5r4t »
    PDB 5r4u-5rm6 »
    PDB 5rm7-5szb »
    PDB 5szc-5tbn »
    PDB 5tcd-5tmc »
    PDB 5tmf-5ty1 »
    PDB 5ty2-5u9b »
    PDB 5u9m-5ufl »
    PDB 5ugk-5uo4 »
    PDB 5uo5-5uwk »
    PDB 5uwl-5va0 »
    PDB 5va4-5vj5 »
    PDB 5vjd-5vo0 »
    PDB 5vo3-5vv6 »
    PDB 5vv7-5w57 »
    PDB 5w5k-5wcq »
    PDB 5wcr-5wlk »
    PDB 5wll-5wy1 »
    PDB 5wy5-5xfq »
    PDB 5xfr-5xwe »
    PDB 5xwi-5y5b »
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    PDB 5yq1-5z85 »
    PDB 5z86-5zh1 »
    PDB 5zhf-5zrr »
    PDB 5zrs-6a6j »
    PDB 6a7w-6alg »
    PDB 6alh-6b0r »
    PDB 6b2f-6bm9 »
    PDB 6bml-6bvd »
    PDB 6bwy-6cac »
    PDB 6cao-6cim »
    PDB 6cj5-6cpt »
    PDB 6cpu-6d06 »
    PDB 6d1a-6dbv »
    PDB 6dbw-6dnw »
    PDB 6dps-6e83 »
    PDB 6e86-6eiy »
    PDB 6ej0-6ety »
    PDB 6eu0-6f3o »
    PDB 6f40-6fdi »
    PDB 6fds-6fjj »
    PDB 6fjk-6fuk »
    PDB 6ful-6g3v »
    PDB 6g46-6gcy »
    PDB 6gdc-6gos »
    PDB 6got-6h0y »
    PDB 6h0z-6h5k »
    PDB 6h5m-6hf5 »
    PDB 6hfd-6hrq »
    PDB 6hsf-6i0y »
    PDB 6i1d-6iji »
    PDB 6ijl-6iv0 »
    PDB 6iv1-6j4g »
    PDB 6j4n-6jeu »
    PDB 6jev-6jss »
    PDB 6jst-6kan »
    PDB 6kc5-6km6 »
    PDB 6knb-6ku2 »
    PDB 6kua-6l6q »
    PDB 6l72-6lj4 »
    PDB 6lj5-6luw »
    PDB 6lux-6mav »
    PDB 6mbd-6ml7 »
    PDB 6mlc-6n7k »
    PDB 6n7l-6ngi »
    PDB 6ngj-6nkn »
    PDB 6nl6-6o3r »
    PDB 6o47-6ofs »
    PDB 6ofu-6ouc »
    PDB 6oud-6p3z »
    PDB 6p40-6pht »
    PDB 6phz-6pne »
    PDB 6pnf-6puz »
    PDB 6pv0-6qba »
    PDB 6qcd-6qut »
    PDB 6qv5-6r4x »
    PDB 6r4y-6rd0 »
    PDB 6rd4-6rfh »
    PDB 6rfl-6ro4 »
    PDB 6rob-6rvl »
    PDB 6rw1-6s3a »
    PDB 6s3g-6sck »
    PDB 6scp-6siv »
    PDB 6siw-6sqc »
    PDB 6sqo-6t5l »
    PDB 6t5p-6tl6 »
    PDB 6tld-6twa »
    PDB 6twf-6uaf »
    PDB 6uah-6uml »
    PDB 6uo2-6v5m »
    PDB 6v61-6vn6 »
    PDB 6vnq-6wbq »
    PDB 6wbw-6woy »
    PDB 6wp2-6x43 »
    PDB 6x46-6xgu »
    PDB 6xgv-6xty »
    PDB 6xue-6y79 »
    PDB 6y7e-6yh9 »
    PDB 6yha-6ymy »
    PDB 6yo2-6yzn »
    PDB 6yzo-6z87 »
    PDB 6z88-6zkg »
    PDB 6zkh-6zpu »
    PDB 6zq9-6zym »
    PDB 6zyn-7aau »
    PDB 7abs-7apl »
    PDB 7apm-7b5n »
    PDB 7b5s-7buj »
    PDB 7buk-7c75 »
    PDB 7c79-7cie »
    PDB 7cjd-7cyq »
    PDB 7d0o-7dao »
    PDB 7dcf-7dws »
    PDB 7e34-7f3o »
    PDB 7f4g-7jo9 »
    PDB 7joa-7k6j »
    PDB 7k6k-7kif »
    PDB 7kil-7kzl »
    PDB 7kzz-7m10 »
    PDB 7m1y-7nio »
    PDB 7nky-7of0 »
    PDB 7ofs-8rnt »
    PDB 8tli-9nse »

Element Zinc, Zn, Transition Metal

About Zinc

From the metals of the iron group, to which it is in many respects similar, zinc differs in the fact that it cannot form any other stage of combination than that containing divalent ion. In this respect it forms an intermediate member between nickel, which has lost this property for the most part, and magnesium, in the case of which no trace of that property is present.

Zinc occurs fairly abundantly in nature, both as oxygen compounds (carbonate and silicate), and as sulphide or blende. Zinc is obtained from both these and is a white, fairly soft metal which melts as low as 420° and boils at 950°. In the air and in water it oxidises very quickly. Since, however, the zinc hydroxide or carbonate which is formed covers the underlying metal with a coherent coating, the oxidation proceeds for the most part slowly, and objects made of zinc resist the influence of air and water fairly well.

Cast zinc is coarsely crystalline and brittle. If, however, the metal is heated to somewhat over 100°, it becomes soft and tenacious, and can be hammered and rolled. Having once undergone this treatment, it remains tenacious even at the ordinary temperature. If it is heated to about 300°, it again becomes extremely brittle, and at that temperature can be ground to a powder; on being cooled, it retains a somewhat brittle character.

Zinc is employed not only in the pure state, but also to a large extent in alloys. Its most important alloy is that with copper; it is called brass, and will be treated under copper. With copper and nickel it forms German silver.

Zinc is also used for coating iron in order to protect it from rust; this is then known as " galvanised " iron. Iron objects which remain constantly exposed to the air, such as railings, agricultural implements, etc., are in this way rendered durable. It is true that zinc in contact with iron oxidises more quickly than when alone, but the oxidation is limited to the surface.

At 420° zinc fuses, and this temperature is low enough to allow of the metal being largely used for castings. At 950° zinc is converted into a vapour, which burns in the air with a brilliant blue flame, forming zinc oxide. The density of this vapour yields the molar weight 65.4; as this number also represents the combining weight, the formula of zinc in the vaporous state is Zn. It contains, therefore, only one combining weight, whereas most of the elements in the gaseous or vaporous form have the double formula. The other metals, however, so far as they are known in the vaporous state, exhibit the same peculiarity as zinc.

It is on the volatility of zinc that its manufacture depends. The oxygen ores are heated directly with charcoal; the sulphide, after being converted into zinc oxide by roasting in the air. The metal formed by the reduction of the oxide with charcoal volatilises and is collected in suitable receivers with exclusion of air, while the impurities remain behind in the retort.

In this process a portion of the metal is obtained in a form in which it is often used in the laboratory, viz. as zinc dust. So long as the temperature of the receiver remains below the melting-point of zinc, the metal is deposited in the form of a fine grey powder. (The relations are exactly the same as in the formation of flowers of sulphur.) This powdery form of zinc is more suitable for many chemical purposes than the fused; in using it, however, it must be remembered that it generally contains a considerable amount of zinc oxide in consequence of an incipient oxidation.

Recently many attempts have been made to obtain zinc from its ores by first converting it into a salt and then decomposing this by means of the electric current. The difficulty of obtaining a coherent metal free from oxide in this way does not appear as yet to have been overcome.

Zinc History

Humanity was familiar with the manufacture of brass from ancient ages. However the metal zinc was not was known. Instead of it Phrygian ash, used for healing sore eyes, was mentioned in the Ebers papyrus from about 1552 BC, the oldest preserved medical document. Brass is known probably since 2 century BC. In Europe it is produced since year 1400 AD. Smelting and extraction of metal zinc was accomplished perhaps since XII century AD in India. Several hypotheses exist about the origin of the name "zinc". Some of scientists suppose that it may also be derived from Persian sing for stone. A Lexicon of Alchemy by Martin Ruland (Martinus Rulandus the Elder) defines zinc as metallic marcasite, a mixture of four elements. By another, less credible version the name derives from ancient or medieval German Zinco or Zinke = sharp point. Some suppose a relation with Zinn, the German word for Tin.

Zinc belongs to the Transition metals family.

Zinc Occurrence

Average crustal abundance of zinc is 8.3x10-3 mass %. In basic igneous rocks its abundance slightly bigger than in the acidic ones: 1.3x10-2% vs. 6x10-3%. This chalcophilic element is, nevertheless, found in 66 rocks, the most important of them are zincite, sphalerite, willemite, calamine, smithsonite and franklinite ZnFe2O4. Zinc is a very active aquatic migrant, especially in thermal waters with accompanied by Lead from which commercially important zinc sulphides are settled out. Zinc actively migrates also in surface and underground waters, settled out by H2S or, in a less degree, by clay sorption.

Zinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life. A grown-up human body contains 2 g of zinc. Despite zinc-containing enzymes are omnipresent, its actual concentration is so small, that its importance was fully understood only 100 years ago. Its significant role is based on the fact that zinc may be found in more than 40 essential enzymes. It catalyzes hydrolysis peptides, proteins, some esters and aldehydes. The most important of them are carboxypeptidase A and carbonic anhydrase.

Zinc contributes to carbohydrate metabolism via insulin and activates vitamin A in the organism. It plays noticeable role for bone formation as well as for its antivirus and antitoxic activity.

Neighbours

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Zn in 7OUF
Zn in 7OUG
Zn in 7OUH
Zn in 7RGN
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