Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
    PDB 12ca-1ai0
    PDB 1aiy-1b6z
    PDB 1b71-1bs8
    PDB 1bsk-1cao
    PDB 1caq-1ctt
    PDB 1ctu-1de6
    PDB 1def-1dy0
    PDB 1dy1-1ed6
    PDB 1ed8-1exk
    PDB 1eyf-1fj9
    PDB 1fjg-1g0e
    PDB 1g0f-1gkq
    PDB 1gkr-1ha5
    PDB 1hbm-1hso
    PDB 1hsz-1i6v
    PDB 1i73-1im5
    PDB 1iml-1jcv
    PDB 1jcz-1jy8
    PDB 1jyb-1kh4
    PDB 1kh5-1kys
    PDB 1kzo-1llm
    PDB 1llu-1m7j
    PDB 1m9j-1mwo
    PDB 1mwq-1ndv
    PDB 1ndw-1nyq
    PDB 1nyr-1os4
    PDB 1os9-1p9w
    PDB 1paa-1pud
    PDB 1pv8-1q9l
    PDB 1q9m-1qv6
    PDB 1qv7-1r6o
    PDB 1r79-1ro9
    PDB 1ror-1sfo
    PDB 1sg0-1t3k
    PDB 1t4k-1tkh
    PDB 1tkj-1u0l
    PDB 1u10-1ums
    PDB 1umt-1v67
    PDB 1v6g-1vrq
    PDB 1vs0-1wew
    PDB 1wfe-1wwf
    PDB 1wwg-1xb1
    PDB 1xb8-1xpz
    PDB 1xq0-1y5w
    PDB 1y5x-1ylk
    PDB 1ylo-1z8r
    PDB 1z93-1zkx
    PDB 1zl6-258l
    PDB 2a03-2afo
    PDB 2afs-2atq
    PDB 2au3-2bfz
    PDB 2bg2-2c3a
    PDB 2c4r-2cij
    PDB 2cim-2czr
    PDB 2d0w-2djw
    PDB 2dkc-2e1b
    PDB 2e1s-2eer
    PDB 2eex-2em4
    PDB 2em5-2eoj
    PDB 2eok-2erq
    PDB 2esf-2fa7
    PDB 2fac-2fpx
    PDB 2fqp-2g84
    PDB 2g87-2gvf
    PDB 2gvi-2han
    PDB 2hap-2huc
    PDB 2hue-2imc
    PDB 2imr-2j65
    PDB 2j6a-2jq5
    PDB 2jr7-2kfn
    PDB 2kft-2l75
    PDB 2lgv-2nx9
    PDB 2nxa-2oc8
    PDB 2occ-2osm
    PDB 2oso-2p53
    PDB 2p57-2pow
    PDB 2ppb-2q8j
    PDB 2qa1-2qp6
    PDB 2qpj-2r71
    PDB 2r74-2sod
    PDB 2srt-2v86
    PDB 2v87-2vp7
    PDB 2vpb-2vyo
    PDB 2vz5-2wey
    PDB 2wfq-2wx0
    PDB 2wx1-2xam
    PDB 2xan-2xr9
    PDB 2xrg-2ytd
    PDB 2yte-2z30
    PDB 2z3g-2zet
    PDB 2zh0-3a32
    PDB 3a36-3aoi
    PDB 3at1-3bk1
    PDB 3bk2-3byr
    PDB 3byw-3cia
    PDB 3ciz-3d08
    PDB 3d09-3dbu
    PDB 3dc3-3dp6
    PDB 3dpe-3e1w
    PDB 3e1z-3ebh
    PDB 3ebi-3epk
    PDB 3epl-3f28
    PDB 3f2b-3fhe
    PDB 3fhp-3ful
    PDB 3fum-3g9y
    PDB 3ga3-3gpu
    PDB 3gpx-3h2w
    PDB 3h3e-3hfy
    PDB 3hgz-3hsn
    PDB 3hso-3i8v
    PDB 3i9b-3ij6
    PDB 3ijf-3ixe
    PDB 3iz0-3k34
    PDB 3k35-3kiy
    PDB 3kj1-3kvt
    PDB 3kwa-3lat
    PDB 3lcn-3lrr
    PDB 3ls1-3m1n
    PDB 3m1v-3mek
    PDB 3men-3mru
    PDB 3ms0-3n63
    PDB 3n64-3nin
    PDB 3nis-3ny2
    PDB 3ny3-3ohc
    PDB 3ohd-3oyl
    PDB 3oym-3pih
    PDB 3pki-3r0d
    PDB 3rj7-3t74
    PDB 3t87-3u9g
    PDB 3ua7-3v24
    PDB 3v25-4agl
    PDB 4agm-4dih
    PDB 4dii-4efs
    PDB 4eg2-4fc8
    PDB 4fgm-6tli
    PDB 6tmn-9nse

Zinc Production

Production of Zinc

Zinc is recovered from Cu-Pb-Zn polymetallic ores with 1-4% zinc as sulphides with silver, gold, cadmium and bismuth in them, with subsequent concentration using the froth flotation method, during which the concentrates with 50-60% zinc are also enriched by lead, copper and, sometimes, by pyrites, and then usually roasted in boiling bed to oxidize the zinc sulfide to zinc oxide. Sulfur dioxide gas, SO2, evolved during the process is utilized for sulphuric acid production. There are two ways for recovering zinc from ZnO. The first way consists of several pyrometallurgical processes that reduce zinc oxide sintering of the roasted concentrate for granulity and gas permeabilty and then distilling the metallic zinc from the resulting mix reducing using carbon (coke) at 1200-1300°C:

ZnO + C = Zn + CO

The distilled zinc is purified in segregation process during which the iron and lead impurities are separated, and 98.7% purity is achieved. More complex and expensive rectification methods may allow obtaining 99,995% of purity.

Electrolysis is the most common solution, during which the roasted concentrates are treated by sulphuric acid. Electrolysis of the obtained sulphates solution in tanks leaded or viniplasted inside is the following step. The purity of 99.95% is common for electrolytic method.

Preparation of Zinc

  1. Dry Process of Extraction. - The ore is concentrated by washing, roasted to the oxide, and heated to a white heat with carbon. The reduced metal distils over and is collected in receivers.

    The roasting is usually performed on the sulphide (zinc blende) or the carbonate (calamine, zinc spar, smithsonite), but zinc silicates are sometimes dehydrated by heating and reduced by carbon. The roasting must be sufficient to convert the sulphide completely into oxide. If the temperature is too low some zinc sulphate is formed that is converted into sulphide during the reduction with carbon. This sulphide is very difficult to reduce.

    Zinc blende is usually roasted in multiple-bedded reverberatory furnaces that are frequently heated by waste gases from the smelting furnaces. The sulphur dioxide evolved by the roasting blende may be used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

    The reduction is effected by heating the roasted oxide with ground coal in fireclay retorts. The English and Carinthian methods of conducting the process have been abandoned. In the Belgian process the retorts have a circular or elliptical section, and are set in the furnace in tiers. In the Silesian process the retorts have a section resembling a narrow window with an arched top, and are usually arranged in a single row, though there may be two tiers. There are various other differences of detail between the two methods. It is now usual to fire by gas, and the regenerative principle is almost universal. Electric smelting has been successfully practised in British Columbia, Sweden, and other places. In the Rhenish process the retorts are somewhat larger than in the Silesian, and are muffle-shaped or elliptical.

    The distillation of the volatilised zinc secures the metal. The condensers should be hot enough to keep the condensed metal in a liquid state. If the retorts are kept well filled with carbon monoxide, no zinc oxide is produced to distil over with the metal. If carbon dioxide is present, oxidation of the metal occurs. The formation of zinc oxide in an oxidising atmosphere has prevented the successful smelting of zinc in blast furnaces.
  2. Wet-extraction processes have been studied and recommended for commercial application. In these processes the zinc is converted into a soluble salt which is then dissolved out. Thus zinc blende has been calcined to zinc sulphate and extracted with dilute sulphuric acid, or roasted with sodium chloride and extracted with water. These and similar processes have been variously combined with the dry-distillation process. The Leadville ores are roasted to zinc sulphate and extracted with water. The extraction of the zinc is completed by chlorination.
  3. The electrolytic preparation of zinc is employed by Messrs. Brunner Mond, Ltd. The calcium-chloride liquors obtained in the ammonia-soda process are treated with crude zinc oxide and carbon dioxide. Zinc chloride and calcium carbonate are thus formed. The zinc-chloride liquors are electrolysed in a cell with carbon anodes and rotating disc-shaped iron cathodes. The chlorine produced is used for making bleach, and the zinc is stripped from the cathodes and melted down. The metal is guaranteed to contain 99.96 per cent, of zinc, and is valuable for making ductile brasses.

    Zinc of 99.9 per cent, purity can be obtained by electrolysing zinc sulphate solution. The metal thus prepared is sometimes brittle, and the brittleness is probably due to occluded hydrogen.

    Gallo proposes the electrolysis of a mixture of zinc fluoride and sodium chloride. The admixture of salt, by lowering the melting-point to 500° C., permits the electrolytic decomposition of the fused fluoride without risk of previous decomposition by water-vapour. Better results are obtained by this use of the fluoride than by electrolysing the fused chloride. The latter process is difficult to apply.

    In an electrolytic method recently described, the solution obtained by treating the ore is purified and then freed from lead, copper, and cadmium by zinc dust. It is then electrolysed between an anode of lead and a cathode of aluminium. The current density at the cathode is 2.6 amp. per sq. dcm. The zinc deposit is easily removed.

Purification of Zinc

Spelter, as commercial zinc is commonly called, is often refined by liquation when the crude material contains about 3 per cent, of lead. By keeping the metal molten for some days the heavier lead collects at the bottom. The top layers, in which the lead content has diminished to about 1 per cent., representing the solubility of lead in zinc at the temperature employed, are then removed. Cadmium and iron are also separated during this process.

Spelter usually contains lead, iron, and cadmium, and traces of arsenic, antimony, tin, sulphur, and carbon. Copper and silver may be present, and occluded gases. Small quantities of various other elements, including phosphorus, may be present.

Zinc of 99.7-99.9 per cent, purity can be obtained by passing the volatilised products from the retorts through " fume filters." The zinc-vapour, being less dense than the "lead fume," etc., passes more readily through the incandescent carbon or other porous material, such as fireclay, constituting the filter, and condenses very free from impurities. If the zinc-vapour is led from the fume filters into the condensers through nozzles packed with carbon to exclude the action of air, the formation of "fume" is prevented. Zinc fume or "blue powder " is a mixture of finely divided zinc and zinc oxide.

Zinc can be refined electrolytically by using zinc sheet as cathode and impure zinc as anode. By distilling electrolytic zinc, obtained by repetitions of this process, metal of 99-999 per cent, purity can be obtained.

Zinc can be prepared free from arsenic by melting it with sodium, and spectroscopically pure by repeated distillation in vacuo.

Zinc of 99-95 per cent, purity is said to be obtained by treating a saturated solution of pure zinc sulphate with sodium amalgam at 81° C., washing the crystals, drying them, and removing the mercury by distillation in a vacuum slowly at 400° C.
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